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Developer’s Guide to Microservices Development with Node JS React

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What are Microservices?

Microservices is an architectural approach to developing software applications as a collection of small, independent services. Rather than building a large, monolithic application, microservices break down the system into modular services, each responsible for a specific business function.

These services communicate with each other through well-defined APIs, enabling flexibility, scalability, and independent deployment. Microservices promote agility in development, facilitate continuous delivery, and allow for the use of diverse technologies within the same application. While they offer advantages such as independence and scalability, implementing microservices requires careful design and management to address challenges related to service communication and system complexity.


Microservices vs. Monolithic Applications

Microservices

Monolithic Applications

Architecture

Distributed System: Microservices architecture breaks down the application into small, independent services.

Single Unit: Monolithic applications are built as a single, tightly integrated unit.

Codebase

Decentralized: Each microservice has its own codebase and data storage.

Centralized: The entire application, including its components and functionality, is contained within a single codebase.

Development and Deployment

Independent Development: Easier for development teams to work on individual microservices independently.Continuous Deployment: Allows for continuous deployment of individual microservices.

Simplicity: Easier to develop and deploy initially, as everything is in one place.Single Deployment Unit: The application is deployed as a single unit.

Scaling

Granular Scaling: Each microservice can be horizontally scaled independently, allowing for more efficient resource utilization.

Horizontal Scaling: Scaling is usually done by running multiple instances of the entire application.

Communication

Inter-Service Communication: Microservices communicate with each other over the network using APIs, typically through HTTP/REST or messaging protocols.

In-Process Communication: Components communicate with each other through in-process method calls or function calls.

Maintenance

Easier to update and maintain, as changes to one microservice don't necessarily affect others.

As the application grows, it can become complex and harder to maintain.

In essence, microservices emphasize decentralization, independent development, and scalability, while monolithic applications prioritize simplicity, a centralized codebase, and ease of initial development. The choice between them depends on factors such as project size, complexity, scalability needs, and development philosophy.

monolithic vs microservices



Advantages and disadvantages of microservices:

Advantages

Disadvantages

Granular Scalability

Complexity

Flexibility and Agility

Operational Overhead

Fault Isolation

Data Management

Technology Diversity

Latency

Ease of Maintenance

Testing Challenges

Team Autonomy

Initial Development Cost

Continuous Delivery and Deployment

Security Concerns

Scalability of Development

Service Coordination


Node JS for the backend Service

Why Node JS ?

Let's explore the advantages and characteristics that make Node.js a preferred choice for building scalable and efficient microservices.

  • Single Threaded: Since Node.js follows a single-threaded approach, the server leverages a non-blocking methodology using event looping.
  • Asynchronous : Node.js is known for its non-blocking, event-driven architecture. This makes it well-suited for handling a large number of concurrent connections, which is essential in a microservices architecture where services often need to communicate with each other asynchronously.
  • Scalability: Node.js is designed to be scalable. Its event-driven, non-blocking architecture allows it to handle a large number of simultaneous connections efficiently.
  • Buffer Less: Data is simply released in chunks; there is no buffering.

Popular Frameworks for choosing Node JS for Microservices development

Express.js :

Advantages:

  • Lightweight and fast.
  • Huge community and wide adoption.
  • Extensive middleware support.

Disadvantages:

  • Minimalistic, may require additional modules for certain features.

Official link : Express.js

NestJS :

Advantages:

  • Built with TypeScript for strong typing and enhanced developer experience.
  • Modular and follows best practices for scalable and maintainable code.
  • Supports decorators for defining modules, controllers, and services.

Disadvantages:

Learning curve, especially for developers unfamiliar with TypeScript.

Official link : Nestjs

Hapi.js :

Advantages:

  • Configuration-driven approach for consistency.
  • Rich plugin system for extensibility.

Disadvantages:

Learning curve due to the configuration-centric nature.

Official link : Hapi.js

LoopBack :

Advantages:

  • Auto-discovery of APIs for rapid development.
  • Strong support for creating RESTful APIs.

Disadvantages:

  • Heavier and more feature-rich, which may be overkill for simple projects.

Official link : LoopBack

Fastify :

Advantages:

  • Extremely fast and low overhead.
  • Schema-based validation for input and output.
  • Designed for building web applications and microservice

Disadvantages:

  • Smaller community compared to some other frameworks.

Official link : Fastify

Communication between Microservices

1. Understanding Microservices Communication:

Imagine each microservice as a friend who specializes in something specific. For them to collaborate and achieve big things together, they need to chat and share information.

2. Choosing the Right Language (Protocols):

Just like people use a common language to communicate, microservices need a common way to talk. This language could be HTTP, which is like sending letters, or a message queue, which is like passing notes.

3. Sending Letters (HTTP Communication):

When microservices use HTTP, it's like sending letters. One microservice sends a request (letter) to another, and the receiving microservice sends back a response (reply). This helps them exchange information.

4. Passing Notes (Message Queues):

Alternatively, microservices can use message queues, which is like passing notes. One microservice leaves a note (message) in the queue, and another microservice picks it up and responds. It's a way for them to communicate without waiting around.

5. Keeping Secrets (API Keys and Tokens):

To make sure the conversation is secure, microservices often use secret codes called API keys or tokens. It's like having a secret handshake to ensure that only trusted microservices can join the conversation.

6. The Importance of Clear Agreements (API Contracts):

Microservices need to agree on how they'll talk to each other. It's like having a rulebook or an agreement (API contract) that everyone follows. This makes sure they understand each other well.

7. Staying Updated (Event-Based Communication/ PubSub):

Sometimes microservices want to know when something important happens, like a party invitation. They use event-based communication where one microservice announces an event, and others who are interested can join the celebration.

8. Handling Busy Schedules (Asynchronous Communication/ Eventual consistency):

Microservices can be busy, so they don't always talk in real time. Asynchronous communication allows them to send messages without waiting for an immediate response, like leaving a voicemail.

9. Building a Support System (Service Discovery):

Microservices need to know who's who in the big conversation. Service discovery is like having a directory that helps them find and connect with each other.

10. The Grand Finale (Micro Frontends and Micro Backends):

Sometimes, microservices team up with micro frontends (the cool interface) and micro backends (the behind-the-scenes workers) to create a fantastic user experience. It's like a well-coordinated performance!

In the world of microservices, communication is key. Just like friends collaborating on a big project, microservices need to talk, share, and work together to create something amazing.

A few examples of Microservice Applications that have been or can be built using React & Node JS

React and Node.js are a popular combination for building microservices-based applications, especially when used together with other technologies like Express.js for the backend. Here are a few examples of microservice applications that can be built using React and Node.js:

E-commerce Platform:

  • Frontend (React): User interface for browsing products, managing shopping carts, and making purchases.
  • Backend (Node.js): Manages product inventory, handles orders, and integrates with payment gateways. Each of these functionalities can be a separate microservice.

Social Media Dashboard:

  • Frontend (React): User dashboard for viewing and interacting with posts, friends, and notifications.
  • Backend (Node.js): Microservices can handle user authentication, post creation, friend requests, and notifications.

Real-time Chat Application:

  • Frontend (React): User interface for sending and receiving messages in real-time.
  • Backend (Node.js): Microservices can handle user authentication, message storage, and real-time communication using technologies like WebSockets.

In these examples, each microservice can be a separate Node.js application, and the React frontend can communicate with these microservices through APIs. This architecture allows for better scalability, maintainability, and flexibility in deploying and updating individual services. Keep in mind that the choice of architecture and the number of microservices can vary based on the specific requirements and complexity of the application.

Beginner-Friendly Courses to Master Microservices with Node js and React

udemy

classcentral

coursera

Youtube Playlist :

Youtube Playlist